Main content area

Swinepox virus vector-based vaccines: attenuation and biosafety assessments following subcutaneous prick inoculation

Yuan, Xiaomin, Lin, Huixing, Li, Bin, He, Kongwang, Fan, Hongjie
Veterinary research 2018 v.49 no.1 pp. 14
DNA, Swinepox virus, animal experimentation, animal models, biosafety, blood, cell lines, dermatitis, feces, immune response, mice, mortality, mutants, piglets, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, rabbits, vaccination, vector vaccines, veterinary medicine, viral load, virus replication
Swinepox virus (SPV) has several advantages as a potential clinical vector for a live vector vaccine. In this study, to obtain a safer and more efficient SPV vector, three SPV mutants, Δ003, Δ010, and ΔTK were successfully constructed. A virus replication experiment showed that these SPV mutants had lower replication abilities compared to wtSPV in 10 different host-derived cell lines. Animal experiments with mouse and rabbit models demonstrate that these three mutants and wtSPV did not cause any clinical signs of dermatitis. No fatalities were observed during a peritoneal challenge assay with these mutants and wtSPV in a mouse model. Additionally, the three mutants and wtSPV were not infectious at 60 h after vaccination in rabbit models. Furthermore, we evaluated biosafety, immunogenicity and effectiveness of the three mutants in 65 1-month-old piglets. The results show that there were no clinical signs of dermatitis in the Δ003 and ΔTK vaccination groups. However, mild signs were observed in the Δ010 vaccination groups when virus titres were high, and apparent clinical signs were observed at the sites of inoculation. Samples from all experimental pig groups were assessed by qPCR, and no SPV genomic DNA was found in five organs, faeces or blood. This suggests that the infectious abilities of wtSPV and the SPV mutants were poor and limited. In summary, this study indicates that two mutants of SPV, Δ003 and ΔTK, may be promising candidates for an attenuated viral vector in veterinary medicine.