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Mechanism of Antibacterial Activities of a Rice Hull Smoke Extract (RHSE) Against Multidrug‐Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium In Vitro and in Mice

Kim, Sung Phil, Lee, Sang Jong, Nam, Seok Hyun, Friedman, Mendel
Journal of food science 2018 v.83 no.2 pp. 440-445
DNA, Salmonella Typhimurium, agarose, animal models, antibacterial properties, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, cecum, cell death, cell membranes, excretion, feces, feeds, flavor, food additives, foods, gastroenteritis, gels, health promotion, in vitro studies, liquid smoke, liver, lymph nodes, mice, minimum inhibitory concentration, multiple drug resistance, pathogens, protein composition, rice hulls, scanning electron microscopy, smoke, sodium dodecyl sulfate, spleen
The present study tested antibacterial activity of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against a multidrug‐resistant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and examined its mode of suppressive action in vitro and in mice. In vitro studies showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of RHSE was 1.29% (v/v). The inactivation was confirmed by complete loss of cell viability in the range of 10⁴ to 10⁷ colony forming units of the resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strain. Agarose and sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses were used to evaluate the integrities of bacterial genomic DNA and total cellular protein profiles. The antibacterial action of RHSE results from a leakage of intracellular macromolecules following rupture of bacterial cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the cells shows that RHSE also induced deleterious morphological changes in the bacterial cell membrane of the pathogens. In vivo antibacterial activity of RHSE at a 1 × MIC concentration was examined in a bacterial gastroenteritis model using Balb/c mice orally infected with the Salmonella Typhimurium. The results show greatly decreased excretion of the bacteria into the feces and suppressed translocation of the bacteria to internal organs (cecum, mesenteric lymph node, spleen, and liver) compared with the infected mice not subjected to the RHSE treatment. Collectively, the present findings indicate that the mechanism of the antibacterial activities both in vitro and in the gastroenteritis environment of the animal model is the result of the direct disruption of cell structure, leading to cell death. RHSE has the potential to serve as a multifunctional food additive that might protect consumers against infections by antibiotic‐resistant microorganisms. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The rice hull derived liquid smoke has the potential to complement widely used wood‐derived smoke as an antimicrobial flavor and health‐promoting formulation for application in foods and feeds.