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Impact of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Shelling Efficacy, Physicochemical Properties, and Microstructure of Fresh Razor Clam (Sinonovacula constricta)

Xuan, Xiao‐Ting, Cui, Yan, Lin, Xu‐Dong, Yu, Jing‐Feng, Liao, Xiao‐Jun, Ling, Jian‐Gang, Shang, Hai‐Tao
Journal of food science 2018 v.83 no.2 pp. 284-293
Veneroida, adverse effects, clam meat, denaturation, drip loss, enzyme activity, extracellular space, gelation, high pressure treatment, hydroperoxides, lipid peroxidation, microorganisms, microstructure, muscle fibers, muscle protein, nonthermal processing, pH, plate count, protein content, protein tertiary structure, scanning electron microscopy, shelling, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, water holding capacity
The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments (200, 300, and 400 MPa for 1, 3, 5 and 10 min) on the shelling efficacy (the rate of shelling, the rate of integrity and yield of razor clam meat) and the physicochemical (drip loss, water‐holding capacity, pH, conductivity, lipid oxidation, Ca²⁺‐ATPase activity, myofibrillar protein content), microbiological (total viable counts) and microstructural properties of fresh razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. HHP treatments significantly (P < 0.05) increased shelling efficiency, water‐holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and lipid oxidation, and HHP‐treated razor clam showed lower levels of microorganisms and drip loss than untreated razor clam. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBA) in HHP‐treated razor clam were greatly increased (up to 0.93 ± 0.09 mg MDA/kg at 400 MPa for 10 min) which was caused by the formation of hydroperoxides during HHP treatment. All HHP treatments were found to have adverse effects on the activity of Ca²⁺‐ATPase and the content of myofibrillar protein (MP), which might be due to the substantial damage to the tertiary structure of proteins at high pressure. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the compaction of the muscle fibers and a decrease in the extracellular space with increasing pressure and holding time. This phenomenon was mainly correlated with the compaction of muscle fibers and denaturation, aggregation, and gelation of muscle protein triggered by high pressure. In general, HHP could be applied as a safe and effective nonthermal technology to produce high‐quality shelled razor clam. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is now well known as a nonthermal processing technology and becoming increasingly acknowledged. However, it has not been widely applied to shell seafood due to its uncertain influence on its quality and shelling property. This study could provide valuable information regarding the shelling efficacy, physicochemical properties, and microstructure of razor clam treated by HHP. And it demonstrated that HHP showed a positive impact on quality of razor clam treated by HHP.