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Quantitative sequence characterization for repetitive DNA content in the supernumerary chromosome of the migratory locust

Ruiz-Ruano, FranciscoJ., Cabrero, Josefa, López-León, MaríaDolores, Sánchez, Antonio, Camacho, JuanPedro M.
Chromosoma 2018 v.127 no.1 pp. 45-57
B chromosomes, B-DNA, Locusta migratoria, ancestry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, genes, histones, satellite DNA, transcriptome, transposons
Repetitive DNA is a major component in most eukaryotic genomes but is ignored in most genome sequencing projects. Here, we report the quantitative composition in repetitive DNA for a supernumerary (B) chromosome, in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), by Illumina sequencing of genomic DNA from B-carrying and B-lacking individuals and DNA obtained from a microdissected B chromosome, as well as the physical mapping of some elements. B chromosome DNA of 94.9% was repetitive, in high contrast with the 64.1% of standard (A) chromosomes. B chromosomes are enriched in satellite DNA (satDNA) (65.2% of B-DNA), with a single satellite (LmiSat02-176) comprising 55% of the B. Six satDNAs were visualized by FISH on the B chromosome, and the only A chromosome carrying all these satellites was autosome 9, pointing to this chromosome, along with autosome 8 (which shares histone genes with the B) as putative ancestors of the B chromosome. We found several transposable elements (TEs) showing nucleotidic variation specific to B-carrying individuals, which was also present in B-carrying transcriptomes. Remarkably, an interstitial region of the B chromosome included a 17 kb chimera composed of 29 different TEs, suggesting reiterative TE insertion in this B chromosome region.