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Impact of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Brown Planthopper Population in Rice Ecosystem

Guru Pirasanna Pandi, G., Chander, Subhash, Singh, MadanPal, Pathak, Himanshu
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Section B: biological sciences 2018 v.88 no.1 pp. 57-64
Nilaparvata lugens, Oryza sativa, adults, canopy, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide enrichment, ecosystems, fecundity, grain yield, hills, inflorescences, longevity, rice, seeds, temperature, tillers, wet season
Influence of elevated CO₂ (570 ± 25 ppm) and elevated temperature (≃3 °C higher than ambient) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) was studied in open top chambers during rainy season of 2013. Elevated CO₂ and temperature exhibited positive effect on BPH multiplication thus enhancing its population (55.2 ± 5.7 hoppers/hill) in comparison to ambient CO₂ and temperature (25.5 ± 2.1 hoppers/hill). Elevated CO₂ + temperature significantly reduced the adult longevity and nymphal duration by 17.4 and 18.5 % respectively, however elevated conditions increased BPH fecundity by 29.5 %. In rice crop, interactive effect of elevated CO₂ and temperature led to an increase in the number of tillers (20.1 %) and canopy circumference (30.4 %), but resulted in a decrease of reproductive tillers (10.8 %), seeds/panicle (10.9 %) and 1000-seed weight (8.6 %) thereby reducing grain yield (9.8 %). Moreover, positive effect of increased CO₂ concentration and temperature on BPH population exacerbates the damage (30.6) which in turn coupled with the plant traits to hampering production.