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Impact of genetic drift on access and benefit sharing under the nagoya protocol: The case of the meishan pig

H. D. Blackburn, Y. Plante, G. Rohrer, E. W. Welch, S. R. Paiva
Journal of animal science 2014 pp. 1-35
Meishan, biodiversity, gene frequency, genetic drift, herds, imports, principal component analysis, swine, China, United States
The Convention on Biological Diversity developed the Nagoya Protocol (NP) on access and benefit sharing (ABS) for international exchange of genetic resources. Concerns are NP will impose new costs for exchanging livestock genetic resources and interfere with commonly used private treaty contracts. No evaluation of genetic change within imported populations and the impact on ABS formulation has been performed. Genetic drift (GD) was evaluated on imported Meishan pigs; with samples from: China (M-China, 22 hd; original imports) and US (M-US, 42 hd). The M-US was subdivided into two herds; M-MARC (18 hd) and M-ISU (24 hd). TempoFs analysis showed a mean shift in allele frequency of 0.11(se = 0.019) due to GD for M-US vs M-China. The M-MARC and M-ISU mean (s.e.) allele frequency shifts due to GD were 0.169 (0.034) and 0.214 (0.036), respectively. Principal coordinate analysis confirmed separation of M-US from M-China. Results showed among M-US substantial changes in allele frequency due to GD in a short time frame. Due to industry norms and genetic changes within imported populations, we suggest continued use of private contracts to facilitate exchange under any ABS regime.