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A comparative study on household level energy consumption and related emissions from renewable (biomass) and non-renewable energy sources in Bangladesh

Baul, T.K., Datta, D., Alam, A.
Energy policy 2018 v.114 pp. 598-608
biofuels, biomass, carbon, carbon dioxide, clean energy, cooking, correlation, developing countries, education, electricity, emissions, energy expenditure, fuelwood, households, income, land ownership, liquid petroleum gas, questionnaires, socioeconomic factors, surveys, Bangladesh
In developing countries, securing clean and equal energy access for all is often constrained by lack of understanding of households’ energy dependency and influencing factors. This study investigates household-level energy consumption patterns, relevant socioeconomic factors and carbon-emissions from various energy sources. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we conducted an explorative survey of 189 households in three income groups in a suburban region of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Results suggest that most of the households heavily depend on biomass energy that accounts for 87% of their monthly energy consumption and about two-thirds of energy expenditure. Contrariwise, dependence on non-renewable energy is minimal and accounts for households’ 31% monthly energy expenditure. The rich households tend to rely more on electricity, candle, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) while their consumption of the non-renewables is significantly higher than that of medium-income and poor households. Income, education and landholdings of households are positively correlated with expenditure for consuming convenient energy sources such as firewood, electricity and LPG. Firewood, the biomass fuel used most for cooking, is an energy source with the highest carbon emissions—monthly about 192kg carbon dioxide equivalent per household. Our research findings offer insights to enhance household-level clean energy access in Bangladesh and countries alike.