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The Hydration of Grains: A Critical Review from Description of Phenomena to Process Improvements

Miano, Alberto Claudio, Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte
Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 2018 v.17 no.2 pp. 352-370
cooking, fermentation, germination, grains, industry, malting, mass transfer, mathematical models
Hydration is a crucial step during grain processing. It is performed prior to many other processes, such as germination, cooking, extraction, malting and fermentation. The number of publications on this topic studying the description of the mechanisms involved and recent technologies for processing enhancement has increased recently. However, due to the complexity of the hydration process, there are still many aspects that are little understood. For that reason, this review provides not only an overview of recent developments in this field, but also a critical discussion of publications from the last 2 decades, as well as suggestions for future innovative studies. This review discusses the importance of hydration in the grain industries, the pathway for water entry into the various grains, the mass transfer and fluid flow mechanisms in the process, the behavior of the hydration kinetics, the mathematical modelling, the technologies used to accelerate the process and other necessary requirements that must be performed to complement and complete our knowledge of this process.