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Traditionally Processed Beverages in Africa: A Review of the Mycotoxin Occurrence Patterns and Exposure Assessment
- Ezekiel, Chibundu N., Ayeni, Kolawole I., Misihairabgwi, Jane M., Somorin, Yinka M., Chibuzor‐Onyema, Ihuoma E., Oyedele, Oluwawapelumi A., Abia, Wilfred A., Sulyok, Michael, Shephard, Gordon S., Krska, Rudolf
- Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 2018 v.17 no.2 pp. 334-351
- beverages, crops, exposure assessment, fermentation, food processing, grains, mycotoxins, nutritive value, raw materials, Africa
- African traditional beverages are widely consumed food‐grade liquids processed from single or mixed grains (mostly cereals) by simple food processing techniques, of which fermentation tops the list. These beverages are very diverse in composition and nutritional value and are specific to different cultures and countries. The grains from which home‐processed traditional beverages are made across Africa are often heavily contaminated with multiple mycotoxins due to poor agricultural, handling, and storage practices that characterize the region. In the literature, there are many reports on the spectrum and quantities of mycotoxins in crops utilized in traditional beverage processing, however, few studies have analyzed mycotoxins in the beverages themselves. The available reports on mycotoxins in African traditional beverages are mainly centered on the finished products with little information on the process chain (raw material to final product), fate of the different mycotoxins during processing, and exposure estimates for consumers. Regulations targeting these local beverages are not in place despite the heavy occurrence of mycotoxins in their raw materials and the high consumption levels of the products in many homes. This paper therefore comprehensively discusses for the 1st time the available data on the wide variety of African traditional beverages, the mycotoxins that contaminate the beverages and their raw materials, exposure estimates, and possible consequent effects. Mycotoxin control options and future directions for mycotoxin research in beverage production are also highlighted.