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Epidemiological investigation of H9 avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, Tembusu virus, goose parvovirus and goose circovirus infection of geese in China

Niu, X., Wang, H., Wei, L., Zhang, M., Yang, J., Chen, H., Tang, Y., Diao, Y.
Transboundary and emerging diseases 2018 v.65 no.2 pp. e304
epidemiological studies, diagnostic techniques, winter, Anseriform dependoparvovirus 1, Influenza A virus, Goose Circovirus, breeding, emerging diseases, farms, geese, disease outbreaks, Avian orthoavulavirus 1, Tembusu virus, mutation, avian influenza, phylogeny, spring, mixed infection, polymerase chain reaction, China
To deepen the knowledge about epidemic prevalence in the goose breeding field, a triplex PCR assay was established, and 478 samples were collected from scaled goose farms in 11 provinces in China. The results of this epidemiological investigation showed that incidence rates of H9 avian influenza and goose circovirus were the highest among five infectious diseases that were evaluated. In addition, the triplex PCR assay established remarkable sensitivity, rapidity and versatility compared to other diagnostic methods. Dual infection comprised a large proportion of the co‐infections in the field, of which the combinations of H9/Tembusu, H9/goose circovirus and goose circovirus/Tembusu co‐infected cases were more common. Epidemics were more severe in winter and spring. Additionally, significant differences in the prevalence of these infectious diseases were observed in association with different age groups. In addition, phylogenetic analysis, determined by the neighbour‐joining method, was carried out to investigate the evolution of these viruses during the study period. For the most part, virus strains isolated during the study were consistent with most goose‐origin strains isolated from the Chinese mainland over the past few years. However, mutations were observed between isolated H9 avian influenza virus strains and sequences available from GenBank, which should draw much attention.