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Effects of Various Field Coccidiosis Control Programs on Host Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Commercial Broiler Chickens

Lee, Kyung-Woo, Lillehoj, Hyun S., Jang, Seung I., Lee, Sung-Hyen
ARS USDA Submissions 2012 v.39 no.1 pp. 17
Eimeria, Infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, acute phase proteins, antibiotics, antibody formation, broiler chickens, coccidiosis, coccidiostats, concanavalin A, disease control programs, eggs, environmental factors, glycoproteins, growth performance, host-pathogen relationships, immune system, intestinal microorganisms, ionophores, medicated feeds, splenocytes, vaccination, vaccines
Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in the poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synthetic chemicals, and antibiotic ionophores) on immune status of broiler chickens vaccinated against infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus (ND) and raised on an Eimeria-contaminated used litter. In general, the levels of ${\alpha}$-1-acid glycoprotein, an acute phase protein, were altered by the treatments when measured at 34 days of age. Splenocyte subpopulations and serum antibody titers against ND were altered by various coccidiosis control programs. In-ovo-vaccinated chickens exhibited highest mitogenic response when their spleen cells were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) at 7 days of age. It is clear from this study that the type of coccidiosis control program influenced various aspects of innate and adaptive immune parameters of broiler chickens. Further studies will be necessary to delineate the underlying relationship between the type of coccidiosis control program and host immune system and to understand the role of other external environmental factors such as gut microbiota on host-pathogen interaction in various disease control programs.