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Advanced LC–MS-based methods to study the co-occurrence and metabolization of multiple mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based food

Malachová, Alexandra, Stránská, Milena, Václavíková, Marta, Elliott, ChristopherT., Black, Connor, Meneely, Julie, Hajšlová, Jana, Ezekiel, ChibunduN., Schuhmacher, Rainer, Krska, Rudolf
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2018 v.410 no.3 pp. 801-825
grain foods, grains, immunoaffinity chromatography, mass spectrometry, metabolites, metabolomics, mycotoxins, screening, solid phase extraction
Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for the determination of mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products. In addition to the regulated mycotoxins, for which official control is required, LC–MS is often used for the screening of a large range of mycotoxins and/or for the identification and characterization of novel metabolites. This review provides insight into the LC–MS methods used for the determination of co-occurring mycotoxins with special emphasis on multiple-analyte applications. The first part of the review is focused on targeted LC–MS approaches using cleanup methods such as solid-phase extraction and immunoaffinity chromatography, as well as on methods based on minimum cleanup (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe; QuEChERS) and dilute and shoot. The second part of the review deals with the untargeted determination of mycotoxins by LC coupled with high-resolution MS, which includes also metabolomics techniques to study the fate of mycotoxins in plants.