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Advanced LC–MS-based methods to study the co-occurrence and metabolization of multiple mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based food
- Malachová, Alexandra, Stránská, Milena, Václavíková, Marta, Elliott, ChristopherT., Black, Connor, Meneely, Julie, Hajšlová, Jana, Ezekiel, ChibunduN., Schuhmacher, Rainer, Krska, Rudolf
- Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2018 v.410 no.3 pp. 801-825
- grain foods, grains, immunoaffinity chromatography, mass spectrometry, metabolites, metabolomics, mycotoxins, screening, solid phase extraction
- Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for the determination of mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products. In addition to the regulated mycotoxins, for which official control is required, LC–MS is often used for the screening of a large range of mycotoxins and/or for the identification and characterization of novel metabolites. This review provides insight into the LC–MS methods used for the determination of co-occurring mycotoxins with special emphasis on multiple-analyte applications. The first part of the review is focused on targeted LC–MS approaches using cleanup methods such as solid-phase extraction and immunoaffinity chromatography, as well as on methods based on minimum cleanup (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe; QuEChERS) and dilute and shoot. The second part of the review deals with the untargeted determination of mycotoxins by LC coupled with high-resolution MS, which includes also metabolomics techniques to study the fate of mycotoxins in plants.