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A new approach for the extraction of tetracyclines from soil matrices: application of the microwave-extraction technique
- Łukaszewicz, Paulina, Białk-Bielińska, Anna, Dołżonek, Joanna, Kumirska, Jolanta, Caban, Magda, Stepnowski, Piotr
- Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2018 v.410 no.6 pp. 1697-1707
- EDTA (chelating agent), agricultural land, animal husbandry, antibiotic residues, chlortetracycline, cleaning, liquid chromatography, microwave treatment, oxytetracycline, risk assessment, soil, soil ecosystems, soil pollution, soil sampling, solid phase extraction, solvents, tissues, wastewater, Poland
- The widespread use of tetracyclines (TCs) in animal husbandry is associated with their constant penetration into the environment and the threat they might pose to living organisms. While the literature data on the analysis of these substances in such matrices as food, tissues, or wastewater are quite extensive, there are still only a few methods presented for the determination of these compounds in soil samples. Moreover, among the literature methods for the extraction of TCs from soil samples, microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MAE) was used only once and in combination with liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection (LC-UV). However, according to the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, the use of LC-UV for the determination of compounds, including pharmaceuticals, in environmental samples is not sufficient. Therefore, the development and application of a sensitive and selective method using the MAE-SPE-LC-MS/MS(MRM) technique for the isolation and identification of a mixture of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) in soils is presented in our study. The credibility of this method has been confirmed with good parameters of validation. The optimal extraction conditions of three TCs using MAE techniques were to conduct double extraction for 10 min each, at 60 °C, using a mixture of ACN:McIlvaine buffer:0.1 M EDTA (2:1:1, v/v/v) and an additional cleaning of the extracts by SPE. The effectiveness of the extraction of these compounds was assessed based on two different ways (absolute recovery from 46 to 65.1% and relative recovery from 101.1 to 109.5%). Finally, the validated MAE-SPE-LC-MS/MS(MRM) method was used for the analysis of six samples from agricultural areas of northern Poland. OTC and TC, at concentrations of 11.7 and 14.5 μg kg⁻¹ were determined in two different samples. An assessment of risk quotients was also performed. The presented method was proven to be a useful tool in the analysis of residues of selected TCs in the soil ecosystem. Obtained data on the presence of these drugs in Polish soils is the first report for this country.