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Assessment of the antiprotozoal activity of Pulicaria inuloides extracts, an Algerian medicinal plant: leishmanicidal bioguided fractionation

Fadel, Hamza, Sifaoui, Ines, López-Arencibia, Atteneri, Reyes-Batlle, María, Hajaji, Soumaya, Chiboub, Olfa, Jiménez, IgnacioA., Bazzocchi, IsabelL., Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob, Benayache, Samir, Piñero, JoséE.
Parasitology research 2018 v.117 no.2 pp. 531-537
Acanthamoeba castellanii, Leishmania amazonensis, Pulicaria, Trypanosoma cruzi, active ingredients, aerial parts, antileishmanials, chloroform, drug therapy, flavonols, fractionation, inhibitory concentration 50, macrophages, medicinal plants, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, spectral analysis, toxicity
The lack of an effective chemotherapy for treatment of protozoan disease urges a wide investigation for active compounds, and plant-derived compounds continue to provide key leads for therapeutic agents. The current study reports the in vitro antiprotozoal evaluation of the Algerian medicinal plant Pulicaria inuloides against Leishmania amazonensis, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Acanthamoeba castellanii str. Neff. All the extracts from the aerial part showed to be present a higher leishmanicidal activity than anti-Acanthamoeba or Trypanosoma. Therefore, bioguided fractionation of the active CHCl₃ extract led to the isolation and characterization of the flavonol, quercetagetin-3,5,7,3′-tetramethyl ether (1) as the main component. The structure of compound 1 was established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY experiments), chemical transformation (derivatives 2 and 3), and comparison with data in the literature. Compound 1 and derivatives 2 and 3 were further evaluated against the promastigote and amastigote stage of L. amazonensis. Compounds 1–3 exhibited moderate leishmanicidal activity with IC₅₀ values ranging from 0.234 to 0.484 mM and from 0.006 to 0.017 mM for the promastigote and amastigote forms, respectively, as well as low toxicity levels on macrophages (CC₅₀ ranging from 0.365 to 0.664 mM). This study represents the first report of the antiprotozoal evaluation of Pulicaria inuloides, and the results highlight this species as a promising source of leishmanicidal agents.