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An optimized DNA extraction method for molecular identification of coccidian species

Tang, Xiaoli, Huang, Guangping, Liu, Xianyong, El-Ashram, Saeed, Tao, Geru, Lu, Chunxia, Suo, Jingxia, Suo, Xun
Parasitology research 2018 v.117 no.3 pp. 655-664
Cryptosporidium, DNA, Eimeria tenella, chickens, coccidiosis, internal transcribed spacers, oocysts, osmotic stress, parasites, polymerase chain reaction, rabbits, sodium hypochlorite, species identification
Molecular identification of Eimeria parasites infecting poultry and livestock has been commonly used for more than 20 years. An important step of the molecular identification technique is the rupturing of the oocyst wall for DNA extraction. Previously, DNA extraction methods included pre-treatment with sodium hypochlorite and osmotic shock with saturated salt solution. Here, we present a modification of this technique for a more sensitive and efficient identification of Eimeria spp. in field samples. The disruption extent of the oocyst walls, yield of DNA extraction, and identification of species-specific DNA sequences by PCR were used to evaluate this optimized method. Incubation of oocysts in sodium hypochlorite for 1.5 h at 4 °C followed by treatment with a saturated salt solution for 1 h at 55 °C broke up the walls of most Eimeria tenella oocysts, as well as other coccidian species of chicken and rabbit, such as Eimeria intestinalis and even Cryptosporidium cuniculus. Notably, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the intervening transcribed sequence 1 (ITS-1) was successfully performed with genomic DNA extracted from just 50 oocysts using this optimized method. Our findings will greatly promote the development of molecular diagnosis methods of coccidiosis and simplify coccidian species identification and categorization as well as infection prevalence, providing a significant advancement in the development of techniques for coccidiosis control and prevention.