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Comparative mapping of the Wild Perennial Glycine latifolia and Soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine

Chang, Sungyul, Thurber, Carrie S., Brown, Patrick J., Hartman, Glen L., Lambert, Kris N., Domier, Leslie L.
PloS one 2014 v.9 no.6 pp. 1-9
Alfalfa mosaic virus, Glycine max, Heterodera glycines, Phaseolus vulgaris, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, agronomic traits, annuals, beans, chromosome mapping, chromosome translocation, chromosomes, disease resistance, evolution, genes, genetic background, genetic resistance, linkage groups, nucleotide sequences, perennials, pest resistance, sequence alignment, single nucleotide polymorphism, soybeans, wild relatives
Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNPcontaining sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production.