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Diversity and evolution analysis of glycoprotein GP85 from avian leukosis virus subgroup J isolates from chickens of different genetic backgrounds during 1989-2016: Coexistence of five extremely different clusters

Wang, Peikun, Lin, Lulu, Li, Haijuan, Yang, Yongli, Huang, Teng, Wei, Ping
Archives of virology 2018 v.163 no.2 pp. 377-389
Avian leukosis virus, chicken breeds, entropy, evolution, genes, genetic background, glycoproteins, glycosylation, laying hens, mutation, nucleotide sequences, sequence homology, China, France, United Kingdom, United States
ALV-J has caused the most serious losses to the poultry industry in China. The gp85-coding sequence of ALV-J is known to be prone to mutation, but any association between the gp85 gene and breed of chicken remains unclear. A comprehensive and systematic study of the evolutionary process of ALV-J in China is needed. In this study, we compared and analyzed gp85 gene sequences from 198 ALV-J isolates, originating from China, USA, UK and France during 1989-2016. These were sorted into five clusters. Cluster 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included isolates from chicken types of different genetic backgrounds, e.g. white-feather broiler, Guangxi indigenous chicken breeds, Yellow chickens and layer chickens respectively. A correlation comparison of amino acid sequence similarities in the gp85 protein among the five clusters showed significant differences (P < 0.01) with the exception being when the third and fifth cluster were compared (P > 0.05). Results of entropy analysis of the gp85 sequences revealed that cluster 3 had the largest variation and cluster 1 had the least variation. The N-glycosylation sites in the majority of isolates numbered 14, 16, 17, 16 and 16, respectively, with regards to clusters 1-5. In addition, 5 isolates from cluster 3 had one more glycosylation site than the other isolates from cluster 3. Our study provides evidence that there were five extremely different ALV-J clusters during 1989-2016 and that the gp85 genes isolated from indigenous chicken breed isolates had the largest variation.