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Feline immudeficiency virus subtypes B and A in cats from São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil

Martins, Nathályados S., Rodrigues, AnaPaula de S., da Luz, LucianaA., dos Reis, Luanada L., de Oliveira, RenataM., de Oliveira, RudsonA., Abreu-Silva, AnaLucia, dos Reis, JennerKarlisson P., Melo, FerdinanA.
Archives of virology 2018 v.163 no.2 pp. 549-554
Feline immunodeficiency virus, blood sampling, cats, genetic variation, haplotypes, immunoaffinity chromatography, immunosuppression, lymphocytes, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, secondary infection, viruses, Brazil
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the genus Lentivirus that is distributed worldwide, with prevalence rates varying between 2.5% and 44%. FIV causes immunosuppression, with depletion of TCD4⁺ lymphocytes, with the majority of clinical signs caused by secondary and opportunistic infections. Blood samples were collected from nine domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from the city of São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil. All samples were positive in a rapid immunochromatographic test (SNAP® Combo FeLV Ag/FIV Antibody Test) and in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Phylogenetic analysis showed that six samples clustered within subtype B, one within subtype A, and two did not cluster with any known subtype. Five unique haplotypes (Hap-1, Hap-2, Hap-3, Hap-5 and Hap-6) and a shared haplotype (Hap-4) were found, this last one being the most frequent. This is the first report on the genetic diversity of FIV in the city of São Luís and the first report of subtype A in Brazil. New variations of the virus are also reported.