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Early plant growth and biochemical responses induced by Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 lipopolysaccharides in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are attenuated by procyanidin B2
- Vallejo-Ochoa, Juan, López-Marmolejo, Mariel, Hernández-Esquivel, AlmaAlejandra, Méndez-Gómez, Manuel, Suárez-Soria, LauraNicolasa, Castro-Mercado, Elda, García-Pineda, Ernesto
- Protoplasma 2018 v.255 no.2 pp. 685-694
- Azospirillum brasilense, Triticum aestivum, binding properties, cell walls, chlorophyll, hydrogen peroxide, leaves, lipopolysaccharides, peroxidase, plant growth, plant response, proanthocyanidins, procyanidins, rhizosphere bacteria, roots, seedlings, starch, superoxide anion, wheat
- This study analyzes the effects of procyanidin B2 on early wheat plant growth and plant biochemical responses promoted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from the rhizobacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. Measurements of leaf, root length, fresh weight, and dry weight showed in vitro plant growth stimulation 4 days after treatment with A. brasilense as well as LPS. Superoxide anion (O₂·⁻) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) levels increased in seedling roots treated with LPS (100 μg mL⁻¹). The chlorophyll content in leaf decreased while the starch content increased 24 h after treatment in seedling roots. The LPS treatment induced a high increase in total peroxidase (POX) (EC 188.8.131.52) activity and ionically bound cell wall POX content in roots, when compared to respective controls. Early plant growth and biochemical responses observed in wheat seedlings treated with LPS were inhibited by the addition of procyanidin B2 (5 μg mL⁻¹), a B type proanthocyanidin (PAC), plant-derived polyphenolic compound with binding properties of LPS. All results suggest first that the ionically bound cell wall POX enzymes could be a molecular target of A. brasilense LPS, and second that the recognition or association of LPS by plant cells is required to activate plant responses. This last event could play a critical role during plant growth regulation by A. brasilense LPS.