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Selenium mitigates cadmium-induced oxidative stress in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants by modulating chlorophyll fluorescence, osmolyte accumulation, and antioxidant system

Alyemeni, MohammedNasser, Ahanger, MohammadAbass, Wijaya, Leonard, Alam, Pravej, Bhardwaj, Renu, Ahmad, Parvaiz
Protoplasma 2018 v.255 no.2 pp. 459-469
Solanum lycopersicum, adverse effects, ascorbate peroxidase, betaine, biomass production, cadmium, carotenoids, catalase, cell structures, chlorophyll, electrolytes, enzyme activity, free radicals, gas exchange, glutathione-disulfide reductase, hydrogen peroxide, leaves, lipid peroxidation, neutralization, oxidative stress, pigments, proline, seedlings, selenium, superoxide dismutase, tomatoes, water content
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of selenium in alleviating cadmium stress in Solanum lycopersicum seedlings. Cadmium (150 mg L⁻¹) treatment caused a significant reduction in growth in terms of height and biomass accumulation and affected chlorophyll pigments, gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Selenium (10 μM) application mitigated the adverse effects of cadmium on growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, leaf relative water content, and other physiological attributes. Lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage increased because of cadmium treatment and selenium-treated plants exhibited considerable reduction because of the decreased production of hydrogen peroxide in them. Cadmium-treated plants exhibited enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes that protected cellular structures by neutralizing reactive free radicals. Supplementation of selenium to cadmium-treated plants (Cd + Se) further enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) by 19.69, 31.68, 33.14, and 54.47%, respectively. Osmolytes, including proline and glycine betaine, increased with selenium application, illustrating their role in improving the osmotic stability of S. lycopersicum under cadmium stress. More importantly, selenium application significantly reduced cadmium uptake. From these results, it is clear that application of selenium alleviates the negative effects of cadmium stress in S. lycopersicum through the modifications of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes.