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Evaluation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO 1) in Cd and Ni induced cytotoxicity and crosstalk with ROS quenching enzymes in two to four leaf stage seedlings of Vigna radiata

Mahawar, Lovely, Kumar, Rajesh, Shekhawat, GyanSingh
Protoplasma 2018 v.255 no.2 pp. 527-545
Vigna radiata, ascorbate peroxidase, cadmium, catalase, cytotoxicity, heavy metals, heme oxygenase (biliverdin-producing), homeostasis, hydrogen peroxide, hydroponics, leaves, metabolism, nickel, oxidative stress, peroxidase, plastids, residential areas, seedlings
Research on heme oxygenase in plants has received consideration in recent years due to its several roles in development, defense, and metabolism during various environmental stresses. In the current investigation, the role of heme oxygenase (HO) 1 was evaluated in reducing heavy metal (Cd and Ni) uptake and alleviating Cd and Ni toxicity effects in the hydroponically grown seedlings of Vigna radiata var. PDM 54. Seedlings were subjected to Cd- and Ni-induced oxidative stress independently at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μM. After 96 h (fourth day) of treatment, the stressed plants were harvested to study the cellular homeostasis and detoxification mechanism by examining the growth, stress parameters (LPX, H₂O₂ content), and non-enzymatic and enzymatic parameters (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaicol peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT)) including HO 1. At 50 μM CdCl₂ and 60 μM NiSO₄, HO 1 activity was found to be highest in leaves which were 1.39 and 1.16-fold, respectively. The greatest HO 1 activity was reflected from the reduction of H₂O₂ content at these metal concentrations (50 μM CdCl₂ and 60 μM NiSO₄) which is correlated with the increasing activity of other antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX). Thus, HO 1 works within a group that generates the defense machinery for the plant’s survival by scavenging ROS which is confirmed by a time-dependent study. Hence, it is concluded that seedlings of V. radiata were more tolerant towards metal-induced oxidative stress in which HO 1 is localized in its residential area (plastids).