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Use of filter papers to determine seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among hunted ungulates in remote Peruvian Amazon
- Emily J. Aston, Pedro Mayor, Dwight D. Bowman, Hussni O. Mohammed, Janice L. Liotta, Oliver Kwok, J.P. Dubey
- International journal for parasitology 2014 v.3 no.1 pp. 15-19
- Tapirus, Tayassu, Toxoplasma gondii, agglutination tests, antibodies, blood, blood sampling, deer, disease reservoirs, seroprevalence, toxoplasmosis, zoonoses, Amazonia
- Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, and it is found worldwide. To determine whether ungulates are reservoirs of T. gondii in an isolated and remote region of the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 5 species of ungulates by the modified agglutination test (MAT). These animals were hunted by subsistence hunters along the Yavarí-Mirín River, in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Blood samples were collected by hunters on filter papers. For determination of T. gondii antibodies, blood was eluted from filter papers, and a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of exposure to T. gondii. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 26 (31.0%) peccaries (Pecari tajacu, Tayassu pecari), six (17.1%) brocket deer (Mazama americana, Mazama gouazoubira), and four (40.0%) lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris). We also introduced a modification to the MAT protocol that allows the extraction of fluid samples from several types of laboratory-grade filter paper, thus enabling researchers to easily adapt their approaches to the materials presented to them.