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Decanethiol functionalized silver nanoparticles are new powerful leishmanicidals in vitro

Isaac-Márquez, A.P., Talamás-Rohana, P., Galindo-Sevilla, N., Gaitan-Puch, S.E., Díaz-Díaz, N.A., Hernández-Ballina, G.A., Lezama-Dávila, C.M.
World journal of microbiology & biotechnology 2018 v.34 no.3 pp. 38
Leishmania major, Leishmania mexicana, amastigotes, antileishmanials, cutaneous leishmaniasis, cytotoxicity, drugs, in vivo studies, inhibitory concentration 50, macrophages, nanosilver, parasites, patients, promastigotes, propidium, reproduction, staining
We evaluated, for the first time, the leishmanicidal potential of decanethiol functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNps–SCH) on promastigotes and amastigotes of different strains and species of Leishmania: L. mexicana and L. major isolated from different patients suffering from localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. mexicana isolated from a patient suffering from diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). We recorded the kinetics of promastigote growth by daily parasite counting for 5 days, promastigote mobility, parasite reproduction by CFSE staining’s protocol and promastigote killing using the propidium iodide assay. We also recorded IC₅₀’s of promastigotes and amastigotes, therapeutic index, and cytotoxicity by co-culturing macrophages with AgNps–SCH or sodium stibogluconate (Sb) used as reference drug. We used Sb as a reference drug since it is used as the first line treatment for all different types of leishmaniasis. At concentrations 10,000 times lower than those used with Sb, AgNps–SCH had a remarkable leishmanicidal effect in all tested strains of parasites and there was no toxicity to J774A.1 macrophages since > 85% were viable at the concentrations used. Therapeutic index was about 20,000 fold greater than the corresponding one for Sb treated cells. AgNps–SCH inhibited > 80% promastigote proliferation in all tested parasites. These results demonstrate there is a high leishmanicidal potential of AgNps–SCH at concentrations of 0.04 µM. Although more studies are needed, including in vivo testing of AgNps–SCH against different types of leishmaniasis, they can be considered a potential new treatment alternative.