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Genetics of resistance in apple against Venturia inaequalis (Wint.) Cke

Khajuria, YashP., Kaul, Sanjana, Wani, AijazA., Dhar, ManojK.
Tree genetics & genomes 2018 v.14 no.2 pp. 16
Malus domestica, Malus floribunda, Venturia inaequalis, apples, binding sites, breeding programs, cultivars, disease control, disease resistance, fungicides, gene interaction, genetic markers, linkage groups, marker-assisted selection, parents, progeny, resistance genes, wild relatives
Apple (Malus × domestica) is the third important fruit in terms of production and consumption worldwide. Apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis is the most devastating disease of apple. In the apple-growing regions, many fungicides are sprayed to control the disease leading to increase in the production cost. Development of scab-resistant cultivars is the long-lasting solution to control the disease. In apples, more than 20 major scab resistance genes have been identified in various cultivars and few wild relatives. Of all these genes, Rvi6 derived from Malus floribunda has been most extensively used in different breeding programs. Gene for gene interactions of these resistance genes with the avirulence genes from V. inaequalis have been understood in many cases. QTL-based polygenic resistance has also been characterized in apple. Nucleotide Binding Site Leucine-Rich Repeats (NBS-LRR) have been identified from the apple genome and many of them have been characterized from the scab resistance region. Molecular markers associated with most of the major scab resistance genes have been identified and their position has been mapped on different linkage groups. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be helpful in speeding up and accurately identifying the scab-resistant parents and progeny. Pyramiding of several major resistance genes can be undertaken for more durable resistance against apple scab. The present paper reviews the Malus-Venturia pathosystem, current status of knowledge about scab resistance genes, and their application in breeding against apple scab.