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Comparative analysis of the protective effects of curcumin and N-acetyl cysteine against paracetamol-induced hepatic, renal, and testicular toxicity in Wistar rats

El-Maddawy, ZeynabKh, El-Sayed, YasserS.
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.4 pp. 3468-3479
acetaminophen, alanine transaminase, albumins, alkaline phosphatase, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, blood proteins, blood serum, catalase, creatinine, curcumin, cysteine, enzyme activity, globulins, glutathione, hepatotoxicity, histopathology, kidneys, lipid peroxidation, liver, malondialdehyde, nephroprotective effect, nephrotoxicity, rats, reproductive toxicology, sperm motility, spermatozoa, testes, urea
This study aimed to investigate the possible protective role of curcumin (CUR) vs. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against paracetamol (PCM)-induced oxidative damage and impairment of liver, kidney, and testicular functions, as well as hematotoxicity, in albino rats. A large single dose of PCM induced lipid peroxidation along with a significant decline in glutathione content and catalase activity in the liver, kidneys, and testicles. The apparent oxidative damage was associated with evident hepatic, renal, and testicular dysfunction, which was confirmed in histopathological lesions, and increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities. PCM decreased serum total protein, albumin, and globulin contents; increased bilirubin, urea, and creatinine contents; and induced hematotoxicity. PCM also reduced the sperm cell count, sperm motility, and alive sperm rate and increased the sperm abnormality rate. Pretreatment of PCM-intoxicated animals with CUR or NAC substantially alleviated the increase in malondialdehyde and maintained the antioxidants at control levels. These pretreatments also minimized liver, kidney, and testicular histopathological changes and normalized their functions. CUR similarly mitigated the PCM hemato- and hepatotoxicity compared with NAC. However, it exhibited a pronounced nephroprotection, rather than reproductive protection as did NAC. Our findings demonstrate that a large single dose of PCM is not only associated with hepatotoxicity but also nephrotoxicity and reproductive toxicity. Both CUR and NAC administration provided substantial organ protection with pronounced efficacy against PCM nephrotoxicity with CUR and reproductive toxicity with NAC, which was possibly mediated through their antioxidant activities, as well as their specific characteristics.