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The N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical evaluation using a panel quantile regression approach
- Allard, Alexandra, Takman, Johanna, Uddin, GaziSalah, Ahmed, Ali
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.6 pp. 5848-5861
- carbon dioxide, global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, income, regression analysis, renewable energy sources, trade
- We evaluate the N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using panel quantile regression analysis. We investigate the relationship between CO₂ emissions and GDP per capita for 74 countries over the period of 1994–2012. We include additional explanatory variables, such as renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality. We find evidence for the N-shaped EKC in all income groups, except for the upper-middle-income countries. Heterogeneous characteristics are, however, observed over the N-shaped EKC. Finally, we find a negative relationship between renewable energy consumption and CO₂ emissions, which highlights the importance of promoting greener energy in order to combat global warming.