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haustorial transcriptomes of Uromyces appendiculatus and Phakopsora pachyrhizi and their candidate effector families

Link, Tobias I. I., Lang, Patrick, Scheffler, Brian E. E., Duke, Mary V., Graham, Michelle A., Cooper, Bret, Tucker, Mark L., van de Mortel, Martijn, Voegele, Ralf T., Mendgen, Kurt, Baum, Thomas J., Whitham, Steven A.
Molecular plant pathology 2014 v.15 no.4 pp. 379-393
Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Uromyces appendiculatus, beans, evolution, fungi, gene expression, genes, hosts, immune system, leaves, nutrient uptake, pathogens, proteins, soybean rust, transcriptome, transposons, viruses
The haustoria of the biotrophic rust fungi are responsible for the uptake of nutrients from host cells, and they produce secreted proteins known as effectors that suppress host defenses. Effectors hold essential keys for elucidating the plant-fungal interactions, and they are promising targets for pathogen control. Here, we studied the haustoria transcriptomes of Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Uromyces appendiculatus, the causative agents of Asian soybean rust and Common bean rust, which cause extensive yield loss in their respective legume host crops. To generate the haustorial transcriptomes, we used pyrosequencing to sequence copy DNA synthesized from messenger RNA extracted from haustoria of P. pachyrhizi and U. appendiculatus. Bioinformatic approaches were used to annotate the resulting sequences, identify gene families, and predict secreted proteins. Families of secreted proteins that were identified only in rust fungi or that were specific to family, genus or species were deemed to be good effector candidates. This work establishes comprehensive sets of candidate effector proteins for the legume rust pathogens, P. pachyrhizi and U. appendiculatus, and provides a foundation for comparative analysis of haustorial gene expression that gives further insight into evolution of host specificities.