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Three endoplasmic reticulum-associated fatty acyl-coenzyme a reductases were involved in the production of primary alcohols in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Chai, Guaiqiang, Li, Chunlian, Xu, Feng, Li, Yang, Shi, Xue, Wang, Yong, Wang, Zhonghua
BMC plant biology 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 41
Blumeria graminis, Oryza sativa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Solanum lycopersicum, Triticum aestivum, abscisic acid, acyl coenzyme A, alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, biosynthesis, breeding, cell walls, cutin, drought, endoplasmic reticulum, epicuticular wax, fatty acids, gene expression, genes, heat, heterologous gene expression, hexaploidy, leaf blade, methyl jasmonate, peduncle, pistil, polysaccharides, powdery mildew, proteins, rice, seedlings, tomatoes, transcription (genetics), wheat, yeasts
BACKGROUND: The cuticle covers the surface of the polysaccharide cell wall of leaf epidermal cells and forms an essential diffusion barrier between the plant and the environment. The cuticle is composed of cutin and wax. Cuticular wax plays an important role in the survival of plants by serving as the interface between plants and their biotic and abiotic environments, especially restricting nonstomatal water loss. Leaf cuticular waxes of hexaploid wheat at the seedling stage mainly consist of primary alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, alkane and esters. Primary alcohols account for more than 80% of the total wax load. Therefore, we cloned several genes encoding fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductases from wheat and analyzed their function in yeast and plants. We propose the potential use of these genes in wheat genetic breeding. RESULTS: We reported the cloning and characterization of three TaFARs, namely TaFAR6, TaFAR7 and TaFAR8, encoding fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductases (FAR) in wheat leaf cuticle. Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR6, TaFAR7 and TaFAR8 were expressed at the higher levels in the seedling leaf blades, and were expressed moderately or weakly in stamen, glumes, peduncle, flag leaf blade, sheath, spike, and pistil. The heterologous expression of three TaFARs in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to the production of C24:0 and C26:0 primary alcohols. Transgenic expression of the three TaFARs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and rice (Oryza sativa) led to increased accumulation of C24:0–C30:0 primary alcohols. Transient expression of GFP protein-tagged TaFARs revealed that the three TaFAR proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of wax biosynthesis. The three TaFAR genes were transcriptionally induced by drought, cold, heat, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) infection, abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that wheat TaFAR6, TaFAR7 and TaFAR8 are involved in biosynthesis of very-long-chain primary alcohols in hexaploid wheat and in response to multiple environmental stresses.