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Effects of different growth temperatures on growth, development, and plastid pigments metabolism of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants

Yang, Li Yun, Yang, Shuang Long, Li, Jun Ying, Ma, Jun Hong, Pang, Tao, Zou, Cong Ming, He, Bin, Gong, Ming
Botanical studies 2018 v.59 no.1 pp. 5
Nicotiana tabacum, carotenoids, cash crops, chlorophyll, chlorophyllase, flowering, glutamyl-tRNA reductase, hydrogen peroxide, leaves, long term effects, magnesium chelatase, malondialdehyde, metabolism, phytoene synthase, pigments, superoxide anion, temperature, tobacco
BACKGROUND: Temperature remarkably affects the growth and metabolism of plants. Tobacco is an important cash crop, and the long-term effects of different growth temperatures (18.5, 23.5 and 28.5 °C, daily average) on growth, development and plastid pigments metabolism of tobacco plants were investigated in this study. RESULTS: Compared with tobacco plants grown under 23.5 °C, treatments with 18.5 and 28.5 °C inhibited the expansion of leaves. The contents of superoxide anion (O ₂·⁻), hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the leaves were significantly increased under 28.5 °C from 0 to 60 days, which in turn accelerated the flowering and senescence of tobacco plants. By contrast, the treatment with 18.5 °C remarkably decreased O ₂.⁻ , H₂O₂ and MDA, and delayed the flowering and senescence. Furthermore, treatment with 18.5 °C significantly up-regulated the expression of glutamyl-tRNA reductase (Glu-TR) and magnesium chelatase (MgCH), and down-regulated the ferri chelatase (FeCH), protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase, chlorophyllase (CHLase), phaeophorbide a monooxygenase (PaO) and phytoene synthase (PSY), which further promoted the accumulation of chlorophyll (Chls) and reduced the carotenoids (Cars) in leaves. On the contrary, exposing to 28.5 °C remarkably down-regulated the Glu-TR and MgCH, and up-regulated the FeCH, CHLase, PaO and PSY, which in turn decreased the Chls and increased the Cars in tobacco leaves. CONCLUSION: As compared with the plants grown under 23.5 °C, lower (18.5 °C) and higher (28.5 °C) growth temperature inhibited the growth of tobacco plants. In general, treatment with 28.5 °C accelerated the flowering and senescence of tobacco plants by enhancing the accumulation of O ₂.⁻ and H₂O₂ in leaves, while exposing to 18.5 °C had the opposite effects. Treatment with 18.5 °C increased the content of Chls and reduced the Cars in leaves. In contrast, Treatment with 28.5 °C decreased the Chls and increased the Cars. Moreover, both O ₂.⁻ and H₂O₂ took part in the breakdown of Chls in tobacco leaves to some extent. The results suggest that growth temperature could regulate growth, development, and plastid pigments metabolism, and 23.5 °C could be an optimal temperature for growth, development and metabolism of plastid pigments of tobacco plants under the experimental conditions.