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Effects of fluorine on crops, soil exoenzyme activities, and earthworms in terrestrial ecosystems

Chae, Yooeun, Kim, Dokyung, An, Youn-Joo
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2018 v.151 pp. 21-27
Eisenia andrei, accidents, acid phosphatase, adsorption, adverse effects, arylsulfatase, barley, cations, crops, cytotoxicity, earthworms, enzyme activity, fluorescein diacetate, fluorine, germination, mortality, mung beans, soil, terrestrial ecosystems, urease, wheat
Fluorine can flow into the environment after leakage or spill accidents and these excessive amounts can cause adverse effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Using three media (filter paper, soil, and filter-paper-on-soil), we investigated the toxic effects of fluorine on the germination and growth of crops (barley, mung bean, sorghum, and wheat), on the activities of soil exoenzymes (acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, and urease) and on the survival, abnormality, and cytotoxicity of Eisenia andrei earthworms. The germination and growth of crops were affected by fluorine as exposure concentration increased. The activities of the four enzymes after 0-, 3-, 10-, and 20-day periods varied as exposure concentration increased. According to in vivo and in vitro earthworm assays, E. andrei mortality, abnormality, and cytotoxicity increased with increasing fluorine concentration. Overall, fluorine significantly affected each tested species in the concentration ranges used in this study. The activities of soil exoenzymes were also affected by soil fluorine concentration, although in an inconsistent manner. Albeit the abnormally high concentrations of fluorine in soil compared to that observed under natural conditions, its toxicity was much restrained possibly due to the adsorption of fluorine on soil particles and its combination with soil cations.