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Biodegradation and detoxification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by new yeast strains

Hashem, Mohamed, Alamri, Saad A., Al-Zomyh, Sharefah S.A.A., Alrumman, Sulaiman A.
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2018 v.151 pp. 28-34
Candida, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Pichia kluyveri, Rhodotorula, aromatic hydrocarbons, biodegradation, bioremediation, climatic zones, environmental factors, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, octane, petroleum, ribosomal DNA, secondary metabolites, sequence analysis, soil pollution, yeasts
Seeking new efficient hydrocarbon-degrading yeast stains was the main goal of this study. Because microorganisms are greatly affected by the environmental factors, the biodegradation potentiality of the microorganisms varies from climatic area to another. This induces research to develop and optimize the endemic organisms in bioremediation technology. In this study, 67 yeast strains were tested for their growth potentiality on both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The most efficient six strains were identified using sequence analysis of the variable D1/D2 domain of the large subunit 26S ribosomal DNA. The identity of these strains was confirmed as Yamadazyma mexicana KKUY-0160, Rhodotorula taiwanensis KKUY-0162, Pichia kluyveri KKUY-0163, Rhodotorula ingeniosa KKUY-0170, Candida pseudointermedia KKUY-0192 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii KKUY-0214. These species are approved for their ability to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for the first time in this study. Although, all of them were able to utilize and grow on both hydrocarbons, Rhodotorula taiwanensis KKUY-0162 emerged as the best degrader of octane, and Rhodotorula ingeniosa KKUY-170 was the best degrader of pyrene. GC-MS analysis approved the presence of many chemical compounds that could be transitional or secondary metabolites during the utilization of the hydrocarbons. Our results recommend the application of these yeast species on large scale to approve their efficiency in bioremediation of oil-contamination of the environment. Using these yeasts, either individually or in consortia, could offer a practical solution for aquatic or soil contamination with the crude oil and its derivatives in situ.