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Myco-phytoremediation of arsenic- and lead-contaminated soils by Helianthus annuus and wood rot fungi, Trichoderma sp. isolated from decayed wood

Govarthanan, M., Mythili, R., Selvankumar, T., Kamala-Kannan, S., Kim, H.
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2018 v.151 pp. 279-284
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, Helianthus annuus, Trichoderma, amylases, aqueous solutions, arsenic, beta-fructofuranosidase, decay fungi, decayed wood, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, enzyme activity, glucose, indole acetic acid, lead, phosphates, phytoremediation, plant growth, polluted soils, shoots, siderophores, solubilization, urease
In the present study, Helianthus annuus grown in arsenic- (As) and lead- (Pb) contaminated soil were treated with plant-growth promoting fungi Trichoderma sp. MG isolated from decayed wood and assessed for their phytoremediation efficiency. The isolate MG exhibited a high tolerance to As (650mg/L) and Pb (500mg/L), and could remove > 70% of metals in aqueous solution with an initial concentration of 100mg/L each. In addition, the isolate MG was screened for plant-growth-promoting factors such as siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, and phosphate solubilisation. Phytoremediation studies indicated that treatment of H. annuus with the isolate MG had the maximum metal-accumulation in shoots (As; 67%, Pb; 59%). Furthermore, a significant increase in the soil extracellular enzyme-activities was observed in myco-phytoremediated soils. The activities of phosphatase (35 U/g dry soil), dehydrogenase (41mg TPF/g soil), cellulase (37.2mg glucose/g/2h), urease (55.4mgN/g soil/2h), amylase (49.3mg glucose/g/2h) and invertase (45.3mg glucose/g/2h) significantly increased by 12%, 14%, 12%, 22%, 19% and 14% in As contaminated soil, respectively. Similarly, the activities of phosphatase (31.4U/g dry soil), dehydrogenase (39.3mg TPF/g soil), cellulase (37.1mg glucose/g/2h), urease (49.8mgN/g soil/2h), amylase (46.3mg glucose/g/2h), and invertase (42.1mg glucose/g/2h) significantly increased by 11%, 15%, 11%, 18%, 20% and 14% in Pb contaminated soil, respectively. Obtained results indicate that the isolate MG could be a potential strain for myco-phytoremediation of As and Pb contaminated soil.