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High resolution UPLC-MS/MS profiling of polyphenolics in the methanol extract of Syzygium samarangense leaves and its hepatoprotective activity in rats with CCl4-induced hepatic damage

Sobeh, Mansour, Youssef, Fadia S., Esmat, Ahmed, Petruk, Ganna, El-Khatib, Ahmed H., Monti, Daria Maria, Ashour, Mohamed L., Wink, Michael
Food and chemical toxicology 2018 v.113 pp. 145-153
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Syzygium samarangense, acylglycerols, alanine transaminase, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, cholesterol, drugs, flavonoids, gallic acid, glutathione, hepatoprotective effect, histopathology, iron, leaves, liver, liver diseases, median effective concentration, methanol, models, oxidative stress, phosphorylation, polyphenols, rats, superoxide dismutase, tannins, toxicology
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of several liver diseases. Many natural polyphenols can attenuate oxidative stress and liver injury. In this study, a phytochemical profiling of a methanol extract from leaves of Syzygium samarangense revealed 92 compounds belonging to flavonoids, phenolic acids, condensed tannins, and ellagitannins. The S. samarangense extract exhibited a noticeable antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 5.80 μg/mL measured by DPPH scavenging capacity assay, 2632 Trolox equivalents, 10 mM Fe2+ equivalents/mg of samples by TEAC and FRAP assays, respectively. The total phenolic content was 419 mg gallic acid equivalent GAE/g extract. In a cell-based model (HaCaT cells), the extract completely inhibited ROS production induced by UVA, and prevented GSH-depletion and p38 phosphorylation. In addition, the extract exhibited a substantial antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities in CCl4-treated rats, with an increase in GSH (reduced glutathione) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activities by 84.75 and 26.27%, respectively, and a decrease of 19.08, 63.05, 52.21, 37.00, 13.26, and 15.15% in MDA, ALT, AST, TB (total bilirubin), TC (total cholesterol), and TG (total glycerides), respectively. These results were confirmed by histopathological analyses. We believe that Syzygium samarangense is a good candidate for further evaluation as an antioxidant and liver protecting drug.