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Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of FERETIA APODANTHERA root bark extracts

Owolabi, Oluwayinka Olufunmilayo, James, Dorcas Bolanle, Sani, Ibrahim, Andongma, Binda T., Fasanya, Opeoluwa O., Kure, Barnabas
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 12
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Apodanthera, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Rubiaceae, adverse effects, albino, alkaloids, alkenes, alternative medicine, amines, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, ascorbic acid, bark, body weight, cardiac glycosides, carrageenan, chemical constituents of plants, edema, ethanol, ethyl ether, hexane, inflammation, inhibitory concentration 50, ketones, ketoprofen, models, neoplasms, rats, saponins, screening, steroids, tannins, triterpenoids
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been implicated in many disorders, including cancer and available therapies elicit adverse effects. Plants of the family Rubiaceae have shown potency against inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential of Feretia apodanthera was investigated in this study to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: The phytochemical, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of root bark (n-Hexane, diethyl ether, ethanol and aqueous) extracts of Feretia apodanthera was investigated in this study. The extracts were subjected to various chemical tests for phytochemical constituents; their antioxidant activity was determined using in-vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity assay and their anti-inflammatory activity was determined using carrageenan induced paw oedema model. FTIR and GCMS analysis was done to determine the compounds present. RESULTS: Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of unsaturated steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponin and alkaloids. Vitamin C had a median inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 0.038 mg/ml which was lower than IC₅₀ of all the extracts. Of all the extracts, ethanol extract had the lowest IC₅₀ (0.044 mg/ml) which is comparable to vitamin C. Anti-inflammatory studies showed that the inflammation inhibition potential of 400 mg/kg body weight of all the extracts was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the standard ketoprofen (50 mg/kg) at the first three hours but significantly higher (p < 0.05) at the fourth hour. At the fifth hour, the inflammation inhibition potential of diethyl ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the standard. FTIR analysis showed the presence of ketones, amines, alkenes and carboxylic groups. GCMS analysis revealed compounds that are potential anti-inflammatory agents. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that extracts of Feretia apodanthera possess anti-inflammatory effects against right hind paw oedema of albino rats and can act as an effective antioxidant.