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Acacia hydaspica R. Parker ameliorates cisplatin induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and morphological alterations in rat pulmonary tissue

Afsar, Tayyaba, Razak, Suhail, Almajwal, Ali, Khan, Muhammad Rashid
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 49
Acacia, DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, adjuvants, alternative medicine, antioxidant activity, blood vessels, cisplatin, enzymes, ethyl acetate, genotoxicity, histology, histopathology, humans, hydrogen peroxide, lungs, medicinal properties, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, platinum, polyphenols, protective effect, rats, shrubs, silymarin, tissue weight
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin (CP) drug is platinum compounds used for the treatment of various human malignancies. However, adverse outcomes related to CP restrict its usage. Acacia hydaspica is a natural shrub with various pharmacological properties. The current investigation aimed to assess the protective potential of A. hydaspica polyphenol rich ethyl acetate extract (AHE) against cisplatin (CP) induced pulmonary toxicity. METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 served as control (saline); Group 2 (drug control) recieved single dose of CP (7.5 mg/kg i.p.) on 1st day; Group 3 (extract control) (400 mg/kg bw, p.o.) received AHE for one week; Group 4 (Post-treated) and Group 5 (pretreated) received AHE (400 mg/kg bw/day, p.o) for 7 days after and before CP (7.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) respectively; Group 6 (Standard control) received silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w/7 days) before CP. At the end of dosing rats were sacrificed and pulmonary tissue samples were processed for the evaluation of antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress markers, genotoxicity and histopathological alterations. RESULTS: CP caused body weights loss and increase pulmonary tissue weight. The CP significantly increases oxidative stress markers and decreases tissue antioxidant enzyme levels. Furthermore, CP induced deleterious changes in the microanatomy of pulmonary tissue by rupturing the alveolar septa, thickening of alveolar walls, and injuring the cells with subsequent collapse of blood vessels. AHE pretreatment returned MDA, NO, H₂O₂ production and improved tissue antioxidant enzyme levels to near normalcy. The histological observations evidenced that AHE effectively rescues the lungs from CP-mediated oxidative damage. CP induction in rats also caused DNA fragmentation which was restored by AHE treatment. Our results suggest that pretreatment more significantly improve CP induced deleterious effects compared with post treatment indicating protective effect. Potency of AHE pretreatment is similar to silymarin. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that A. hydaspica AHE extract might serve as potential adjuvant that prevents CP persuaded pulmonary toxicity due to its intrinsic antioxidant potential and polyphenolic constituents.