Main content area

Dietary canolol protects the heart against the deleterious effects induced by the association of rapeseed oil, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 in the context of a high-fat diet

Leger, Thibault, Hininger-Favier, Isabelle, Capel, Frédéric, Geloen, Alain, Rigaudière, Jean-Paul, Jouve, Chrystèle, Pitois, Elodie, Pineau, Gaelle, Vaysse, Carole, Chardigny, Jean-Michel, Michalski, Marie-Caroline, Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne, Demaison, Luc
Nutrition & metabolism 2018 v.15 no.1 pp. 15
alpha-linolenic acid, apoptosis, arachidonic acid, biogenesis, cardiac output, cardioprotective effect, coenzyme Q10, fibrosis, gene expression, heart, heart failure, high fat diet, inflammation, ischemia, lipid peroxidation, low fat diet, males, messenger RNA, metabolism, mitochondria, obesity, omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, palm oils, phospholipids, rapeseed oil, rats, reactive oxygen species, receptors, vasoconstriction, vitamin E
BACKGROUND: Obesity progressively leads to cardiac failure. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to have cardio-protective effects in numerous pathological situations. It is not known whether rapeseed oil, which contains α-linolenic acid (ALA), has a similar protective effect. Omega-3 PUFAs are sensitive to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation products could damage cardiac cells. We thus tested whether dietary refined rapeseed oil (RSO) associated with or without different antioxidants (vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and canolol) is cardio-protective in a situation of abdominal obesity. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were subdivided into 5 groups. Each group was fed a specific diet for 11 weeks: a low-fat diet (3% of lipids, C diet) with compositionally-balanced PUFAs; a high-fat diet rich in palm oil (30% of lipids, PS diet); the PS diet in which 40% of lipids were replaced by RSO (R diet); the R diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and vitamin E (RTC diet); and the RTC diet supplemented with canolol (RTCC diet). At the end of the diet period, the rats were sacrificed and the heart was collected and immediately frozen. Fatty acid composition of cardiac phospholipids was then determined. Several features of cardiac function (fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis) were also estimated. RESULTS: Abdominal obesity reduced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis rate by increasing the proportion of arachidonic acid (AA) in membrane phospholipids. Dietary RSO had the same effect, though it normalized the proportion of AA. Adding vitamin E and CoQ10 in the RSO-rich high fat diet had a deleterious effect, increasing fibrosis by increasing angiotensin-2 receptor-1b (Ag2R-1b) mRNA expression. Overexpression of these receptors triggers coronary vasoconstriction, which probably induced ischemia. Canolol supplementation counteracted this deleterious effect by reducing coronary vasoconstriction. CONCLUSION: Canolol was found to counteract the fibrotic effects of vitamin E + CoQ10 on cardiac fibrosis in the context of a high-fat diet enriched with RSO. This effect occurred through a restoration of cardiac Ag2R-1b mRNA expression and decreased ischemia.