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Laccase-derived lignin compounds boost cellulose oxidative enzymes AA9

Brenelli, Lívia, Squina, Fabio M., Felby, Claus, Cannella, David
Biotechnology for biofuels 2018 v.11 no.1 pp. 10
biomass, cellulases, cellulose, electrons, enzymatic hydrolysis, fungi, laccase, lignin, lignocellulose, oxidation, oxygen, rendering, saccharification, sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw
BACKGROUND: The discovery of lignin as activator for the redox enzyme lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) for the oxidation of cell-wall polysaccharides opens a new scenario for investigation of the interplay between different lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. The lignin-active enzymes in one hand, and the carbohydrate active in the other, are linked through a variety of electrons carrier molecules either derived from lignin or enzymatically transferred. Likewise, in nature, many lignocellulose-degrading organisms are expressing those enzymes simultaneously, and we wanted to test if a major commercial available lignin oxidase enzyme, i.e., laccase could benefit and synergize the activity of the LPMOs by depolymerizing the insoluble lignin. RESULTS: In this work, two fungal laccases together with a mediator (ABTS) were used to isolate low-molecular-weight lignin from lignocellulosic biomass. The isolated lignins were used as electron donors for activation of LPMOs. A direct correlation between the low-molecular-weight lignin isolated with laccases and an increased activity of a cellulolytic cocktail containing LPMO was found when pure cellulose was hydrolyzed. We then tried to implement existing commercial cellulases cocktail with laccase enzymes, but under the conditions tested, the co-incubation of laccases with LPMOs showed a substrate competition towards oxygen inhibiting the LPMO. In addition, we found that laccase treatment may cause other modifications to pure cellulose, rendering the material more recalcitrant for enzymatic saccharification. CONCLUSIONS: Laccase-mediated system was able to depolymerize lignin from pre-treated and native sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw, and the released phenolic molecules were able to donate electrons to LPMO enzymes boosting the overall enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Likewise, other poly-phenol oxidase, we might have just started showing possible pros or cons in applying several oxidase enzymes for a simultaneous degradation of cellulose and lignin, and we found that the competition towards oxygen and their different consumption rates must be taken into account for any possible co-application.