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Health risk of heavy metals from vegetables irrigated with sewage water in peri-urban of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

Ullah, H., Khan, N.U., Ali, F., Shah, Z.A., Ullah, Q.
International journal of environmental science and technology 2018 v.15 no.2 pp. 309-322
Benincasa, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, World Health Organization, adults, cadmium, children, health effects assessments, heavy metals, lead, municipal wastewater, nickel, risk, soil, toxicity, vegetables, Pakistan
Health risks of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with sewage water were investigated in the present study. The findings indicated a massive accumulation of heavy metals in soil and vegetables collected from Dera Ismail khan, Pakistan. The concentration levels of heavy metal in vegetables grown on soil irrigated with untreated sewage water were significantly higher at (P ≤ 0.001) than in vegetables grown on fresh-water-irrigated soil and proceeded the recommended limits of World health organization. Moreover, the findings also indicated that the adults and children consuming such vegetables ingested a large proportion of the selected toxic metals. Health risk index was greater than one for Pb and Cd in all the selected vegetables and was greater than one for Ni in three vegetables like Spinacia oleracea, Benincasa fistulosa and Lactuca sativa. Health risk assessment would be a useful tool for information regarding any threats of heavy metals contamination in vegetables.