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Effectiveness of Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide for heavy metal removal from mine wastewater and sludge volume reduction
- Rahman, M.Tamzid, Kameda, T., Kumagai, S., Yoshioka, T.
- International journal of environmental science and technology 2018 v.15 no.2 pp. 263-272
- aluminum, aluminum hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, cations, copper, coprecipitation, health hazards, heavy metals, iron, lead, magnesium, magnesium hydroxide, mining, pollutants, pollution control, sludge, wastewater, wastewater treatment, water pollution, zinc
- Health hazards from heavy metal pollution in water systems are a global environmental problem. Of similar concern is sludge that results from wastewater treatment due to unsatisfactory sludge management technology. Therefore, the effectiveness of using Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide in the removal of heavy metals from mine wastewater was tested and compared with that of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)₂], which is a common treatment method for heavy metal removal. Initially, the mine wastewater contained cations of the heavy metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb). The Mg–Al-layered double hydroxides were able to remove 371, 7.2, 121, and 0.4 mg/L of these pollutants, respectively, using the co-precipitation method. The removal of these metals is most effective using 0.5 g Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al molar ratio 4) and 20 min of shaking. Zn was removed by the formation of Zn(NO₃)(OH)·H₂O and Zn₅(NO₃)₂(OH)₈ when LDH, Mg/Al molar ratios of 4 and 2, respectively, were used. Similarly, Fe, Cu, and Pb were removed by the formation of Fe–Al-layered double hydroxide, Cu₂(OH)₃·NO₃ and Pb₄(OH)₄(NO₃)₄, respectively. While Ca(OH)₂ is also capable of reducing the heavy metal concentrations below the Japanese recommended values, this analysis shows that using 0.5 g Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide is a better treatment condition for mine wastewater, because it generates lower sludge volumes than 0.1 g of Ca(OH)₂. The measured sludge volume was 1.5 mL for Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide and 2.5 mL for Ca(OH)₂, a nearly twofold further reduction.