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Effectiveness of Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide for heavy metal removal from mine wastewater and sludge volume reduction

Rahman, M.Tamzid, Kameda, T., Kumagai, S., Yoshioka, T.
International journal of environmental science and technology 2018 v.15 no.2 pp. 263-272
aluminum, aluminum hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, cations, copper, coprecipitation, health hazards, heavy metals, iron, lead, magnesium, magnesium hydroxide, mining, pollutants, pollution control, sludge, wastewater, wastewater treatment, water pollution, zinc
Health hazards from heavy metal pollution in water systems are a global environmental problem. Of similar concern is sludge that results from wastewater treatment due to unsatisfactory sludge management technology. Therefore, the effectiveness of using Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide in the removal of heavy metals from mine wastewater was tested and compared with that of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)₂], which is a common treatment method for heavy metal removal. Initially, the mine wastewater contained cations of the heavy metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb). The Mg–Al-layered double hydroxides were able to remove 371, 7.2, 121, and 0.4 mg/L of these pollutants, respectively, using the co-precipitation method. The removal of these metals is most effective using 0.5 g Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al molar ratio 4) and 20 min of shaking. Zn was removed by the formation of Zn(NO₃)(OH)·H₂O and Zn₅(NO₃)₂(OH)₈ when LDH, Mg/Al molar ratios of 4 and 2, respectively, were used. Similarly, Fe, Cu, and Pb were removed by the formation of Fe–Al-layered double hydroxide, Cu₂(OH)₃·NO₃ and Pb₄(OH)₄(NO₃)₄, respectively. While Ca(OH)₂ is also capable of reducing the heavy metal concentrations below the Japanese recommended values, this analysis shows that using 0.5 g Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide is a better treatment condition for mine wastewater, because it generates lower sludge volumes than 0.1 g of Ca(OH)₂. The measured sludge volume was 1.5 mL for Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide and 2.5 mL for Ca(OH)₂, a nearly twofold further reduction.