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Antibiotic resistome in landfill leachate from different cities of China deciphered by metagenomic analysis

Zhao, Renxin, Feng, Jie, Yin, Xiaole, Liu, Jie, Fu, Wenjie, Berendonk, Thomas U., Zhang, Tong, Li, Xiaoyan, Li, Bing
Water research 2018 v.134 pp. 126-139
antibiotic resistance genes, antibiotics, cities, community structure, hosts, landfill leachates, landfills, metagenomics, microbial communities, monitoring, ribosomal RNA, risk management, sewage treatment, China
High throughput sequencing-based metagenomic analysis and network analysis were applied to investigate the broad-spectrum profiles of ARGs in landfill leachate from 12 cities in China. In total, 526 ARG subtypes belonging to 21 ARG types were detected with abundances ranging from 1.1 × 10−6 to 2.09 × 10−1 copy of ARG/copy of 16S rRNA gene. 68 ARG subtypes that accounted for 73.4%–93.4% of the total ARG abundances were shared by all leachate samples. The four most abundant ARGs, sul1, sul2, aadA and bacA can be served as ARG indicators to quantitatively predict the total abundances by linear functions (r2 = 0.577–0.819, P < 0.001). No distinct regional distribution pattern of the ARGs was observed among different cities in China, while the ARG compositions of the leachate were clearly distinct from those of other environmental sample types. Nearly 90% ARG subtypes in the anaerobic digestion sludge from sewage treatment plants (STPADS) were shared by the leachate and the abundances of leachate and STPADS ARGs generalists accounted for 84.5% and 87.7% of total abundances in these two types of anaerobic samples, respectively. Furthermore, Procrustes analysis suggested that microbial community composition might be the determining factor of ARG compositions in landfill leachate. ARGs within the same type or among the different types showed higher incidences of non-random co-occurrence and 17 genera might be potential hosts of multiple ARGs. This study highlighted that landfill leachate is an important reservoir of various ARGs and provided a useful reference for the surveillance and risk management of ARGs in landfill environments.