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Opportunities and challenges in the use of mineral nutrition for minimizing arsenic toxicity and accumulation in rice: A critical review

Saifullah,, Dahlawi, Saad, Naeem, Asif, Iqbal, Muhammad, Farooq, Muhammad Ansar, Bibi, Sadia, Rengel, Zed
Chemosphere 2018 v.194 pp. 171-188
arsenic, bioaccumulation, grain crops, humans, iron, irrigation, manganese, nutrients, nutrition, phosphates, polluted soils, rhizosphere, rice, risk, silicon, sulfur, toxicity
Growing rice on arsenic (As)-contaminated soil or irrigating with As-contaminated water leads to significant accumulation of As in grains. Moreover, rice accumulates more As into grains than other cereal crops. Thus, rice consumption has been identified as a major route of human exposure to As in many countries. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic and could pose a considerable health risk to humans even at low dietary concentration. Genotypic variation and concentration of nutrients such as iron, manganese, phosphate, sulfur and silicon are the two main factors that affect As accumulation in rice grains. Therefore, in addition to better growth and yield of plants, application of specific nutrients in optimum quantities offers an added benefit of decreasing As content in rice grains. These nutrient elements influence speciation of As in rhizosphere, compete with As for root uptake and interfere with As translocations to the shoot and ultimately accumulation in grains. This papers critically appraises the methods, forms and rate of application, mechanisms and extent of efficiency of different mineral nutrients in decreasing As accumulation in rice grains.