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Comparative toxicity and bioaccumulation of two dinotefuran metabolites, UF and DN, in earthworms (Eisenia fetida)
- Liu, Tong, Zhang, Xiaolian, Wang, Xiuguo, Chen, Dan, Li, Yiqiang, Wang, Fenglong
- Environmental pollution 2018 v.234 pp. 988-996
- Eisenia fetida, antioxidants, bioaccumulation, dinotefuran, earthworms, enzyme activity, exposure duration, genes, metabolites, nontarget organisms, oxidative stress, pollutants, risk, soil, toxicity, urea
- Dinotefuran, as the latest generation of neonicotinoid insecticide, has broad application prospects around the world. However, dinotefuran is easily metabolized and the two main metabolites are 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) urea (UF) and 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) guanidium dihydrogen (DN). In the present study, the risks of UF and DN in soil on typical non-target species earthworm were investigated. In the same time, the degradation in soil and accumulation in earthworms of UF and DN were monitored. The present results showed that the toxicities of UF and DN were similar in their effect on earthworms and they were supertoxic pollutants to earthworms. The degradation trend in soil and accumulation trend in earthworms of UF and DN were consistent throughout the whole exposure period. At 1.0 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg, UF and DN could induce the excess production of ROS, resulting in oxidative stress effects in earthworm cells. The excess ROS induce changes in antioxidant enzyme activities, damage in biomacromolecules, and abnormal expression of function genes. The present results showed that UF and DN may have high risks for earthworms.