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Applications of magnetic hybrid adsorbent derived from waste biomass for the removal of metal ions and reduction of 4-nitrophenol

Cunha, Graziele da C., dos Santos, Bruna Thaysa, Alves, Jôse Raymara, Alves Silva, Iris Amanda, de Souza Cruz, Daiane Requião, Romão, Luciane P.C.
Journal of environmental management 2018 v.213 pp. 236-246
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, adsorbents, adsorption, biomass, cadmium, catalytic activity, cobalt, coconuts, ferrimagnetic materials, industrial symbiosis, industrial wastes, lead, magnetism, mesocarp, metal ions, organic matter, p-nitrophenol, pH, pollution, sawdust, termite mounds
The use of industrial waste to synthesize materials of technological interest is a rational way to minimize or solve environmental pollution problems. This work investigates the adsorption of cadmium and lead ions by magnetic hybrid adsorbents synthesized using the in natura biomasses coconut mesocarp (CCFe), sawdust (SAFe), and termite nest (TEFe) for the organic phases and magnetic cobalt ferrite as the inorganic phase. The formation of a cobalt ferrite phase was confirmed by XRD. The use of XRD and FTIR analyses revealed the presence of organic matter in the structure of the material. Removal assays performed at different pH values (2.0–8.0) showed the effectiveness of the adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ at pH 3.0 and Cd2+ at pH 4.0. The adsorption processes showed fast kinetics, with removal of 79–86% of Pb2+ and 49% of Cd2+ within only 5 min, and removal of 92–96% of the metal species at equilibrium. In the case of cadmium, the hybrid sorbents (CCFe, SAFe, and TEFe) showed high removal capacity after three reuse cycles, while the removal of lead decreased from 99% to 40%. The adsorbent matrices saturated with the recovered cadmium and lead ions showed excellent catalytic performance in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, with 99.9% conversion within 43–56 s. The materials showed high capacities for reuse in three successive reduction cycles. The findings highlight the effectiveness of an industrial symbiosis approach to the development of new technologically important materials.