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Structural and mechanical characteristics of bread and their impact on oral processing: a review

Gao, Jing, Wang, Yong, Dong, Zhizhong, Zhou, Weibiao
International journal of food science & technology 2018 v.53 no.4 pp. 858-872
bioavailability, breads, deformation, deglutition, digestion, flavor, humans, mastication, models, nutrients, strength (mechanics), texture
Oral processing has become an important area of research in sensory and nutrition studies. Mastication process not only determines the dynamics of flavour release and texture perception but also affects the bioavailability of nutrients. Oral processing of bread is of particular interest because of the need to reduce its glycaemic potential while keeping its desired soft and aerated texture. Bread structure determines its mechanical strength and deformation behaviour which in turn decides people's texture perception and swallowing thresholds. The strong interconnection between food structure and its resistance to breakdown is the rationale behind designing bread to control bread digestion, starting from the oral phase. The present review summarises the characterisation and formation of bread structure, its interlink with bread mechanical behaviour and destruction during human oral processing. Future research should further elucidate the structure–mechanics–digestion interlink by implementing relevant mechanical analyses and micromechanical modelling.