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Magnetic resonance imaging features of canine gliomatosis cerebri

Schweizer‐Gorgas, Daniela, Henke, Diana, Oevermann, Anna, Lang, Johann, Vandevelde, Marc, Steffen, Frank
Veterinary radiology & ultrasound 2018 v.59 no.2 pp. 180-187
adhesion, dogs, hippocampus, histopathology, humans, hypothalamus, magnetic resonance imaging, neoplasm cells, neuroglia, thalamus
A retrospective, case series study was undertaken to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of gliomatosis cerebri in dogs. Fourteen dogs were included by review of histopathological records and contemporaneous MRI. On MRI, all lesions presented as ill‐defined, intraaxial lesions within the left and right forebrain hemispheres with involvement of white and gray matter. Lesions presented as hyperintense areas on T2‐weighted and FLAIR sequences and as hypointense or isointense areas on T1‐weighted images, with mild parenchymal contrast enhancement in three dogs. Signal changes were noted in three to 10 cerebral lobes. Other most commonly affected structures were the thalamus (13), caudate nucleus (13), interthalamic adhesion (11), hypothalamus (11), callosal commissure (10), hippocampus (9), and quadrigeminal plate (8). Abnormalities within the caudal fossa were noted in 10 dogs. Solid tumor portions were identified in five dogs. The histopathological examination demonstrated in all dogs a widespread diffuse infiltration with neoplastic glial cells in white and gray matter with meningeal infiltration. Comparison between MRI and histopathology showed that all areas with signal changes on MRI corresponded to diffuse and dense infiltration with neoplastic cells. The signal intensity on T2‐weighted and FLAIR images reflected the density of neoplastic cells. In all dogs, MRI underestimated lesion extent and meningeal infiltration. Involvement of the caudal fossa was not seen on MRI in three dogs. Despite this, MRI allowed identification of lesions extending into at least three cerebral lobes and therefore satisfying the criteria used for diagnosis of diffuse glioma with gliomatosis cerebri growth pattern in humans.