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Leaching of Clothianidin in Two Different Indian Soils: Effect of Organic Amendment
- Singh, NingthoujamSamarendra, Mukherjee, Irani, Das, ShaonKumar, Varghese, E.
- Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 2018 v.100 no.4 pp. 553-559
- animal manures, clothianidin, leachates, leaching, rain, soil depth, India
- Clothianidin is a widely used insecticide under Indian subtropical condition. The objective of this study was to generate residue data which aims to understand leaching potential of clothianidin [(E)-1-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2- nitroguanidine] through packed soil column. The maximum amount of clothianidin was recovered at 0–5 cm soil depth in both Manipur (67.15%) and Delhi soil (52.0%) under continuous flow condition. Manipur and Delhi soil concentrated maximum residue with or without farm yard manure (FYM) in 0–20 cm soil depth. The effect of varying the amount of water enhanced the distribution of residues in the first 0–5 cm layer. Among the tested soils, residue was detected in the leachate from Delhi soil (0.04 µg/mL). Clothianidin leaching was minimized in soil of Manipur compared to Delhi after incorporation of FYM. As the volume of water increased upto 160 mL, mobility increased and residues moved to lower depth. Clothianidin did not leach out of the 25 cm long soil columns even after percolating water equivalent to 415.42 mm rainfall. Clothianidin is mobile in soil system and mobility can be reduced by organic amendment application.