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Heavy metals in handloom-dyeing effluents and their biosorption by agricultural byproducts

Nahar, Kamrun, Chowdhury, Md.Abul Khair, Chowdhury, Md.Akhter Hossain, Rahman, Afzal, Mohiuddin, K.M.
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.8 pp. 7954-7967
adsorption, agricultural land, agricultural wastes, agroindustrial byproducts, biosorbents, biosorption, cadmium, chromium, copper, dyes, egg shell, fabrics, guidelines, heavy metals, industrial effluents, iron, irrigation water, lead, lemon peels, manganese, pH, rice hulls, sawdust, sewage sludge, socioeconomics, solid wastes, spectrophotometers, surface water, temperature, textile industry, weaving, zinc, Bangladesh
The Madhabdi municipality in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh is a well-known area for textile, handloom weaving, and dyeing industries. These textile industries produce a considerable amount of effluents, sewage sludge, and solid waste materials every day that they directly discharge into surrounding water bodies and agricultural fields. This disposal poses a serious threat to the overall epidemic and socio-economic pattern of the locality. This research entailed the collection of 34 handloom-dyeing effluent samples from different handloom-dyeing industries of Madhabdi, which were then analyzed to determine the contents of the heavy metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Average concentrations of Fe, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn were 3.81, 1.35, 1.70, 0.17, 0.75, and 0.73 mg L⁻¹, respectively, whereas Cd content was below the detectable limit of the atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Mn exceed the industrial effluent discharge standards (IEDS) for inland surface water and irrigation water guideline values. A biosorption experiment of the heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn) was conducted without controlling for any experimental parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, or other compounds present in the effluent samples) by using four agricultural wastes or byproducts, namely rice husk, sawdust, lemon peel, and eggshell. Twenty grams of each biosorbent was added to 1 L of effluent samples and stored for 7 days. The biosorption capacity of each biosorbent is ranked as follows: eggshell, sawdust, rice husk, and lemon peel. Furthermore, the biosorption affinity of each metal ion was found in the following order: Cu and Cr (both had similar biosorption affinity), Zn, Fe, Mn. The effluents should not be discharged before treatment, and efficient treatment of effluents is possible with eggshell powder or sawdust at a rate of 20 g of biosorbent per liter of effluents.