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The Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Glucose in Biphasic System by Phosphotungstic Acidified Titanium–Zirconium Dioxide
- He, Rong, Huang, Xiaolin, Zhao, Peng, Han, Bin, Wu, Tinghua, Wu, Ying
- Waste and biomass valorization 2018 v.9 no.4 pp. 657-668
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ammonia, catalysts, catalytic activity, desorption, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural, magnetism, mixing, phosphotungstic acid, recycling, temperature, thermal stability, titanium dioxide, transmission electron microscopes, transmission electron microscopy, zirconium oxide
- Phosphotungstic acidified titanium–zirconium dioxide catalysts with different loading of phosphotungstic acid (HPA) were synthesized by a precipitation-impregnation method. The phosphotungstic acidified solid acids were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH₃-TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. And the catalytic performance of HPA/TiO₂–ZrO₂ was explored for glucose degradation to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in biphasic system, such as the loading of HPA, the molar ratio of TiO₂ to ZrO₂, reaction time, temperature, amount of catalyst, the volume ratio of V NₐCₗ₍ₐq₎/V THF and magnetic stirring speed. It was found that activity of the catalyst was related to the amount and density of acid site. The optimized yield of 51.3% for 5-HMF and the optimum conversion rate of 95.4% for glucose were achieved by 5% HPA/TiO₂–ZrO₂. Meanwhile, recycling performance of the catalyst was investigated. And the catalyst had good thermal stability, the yield of 5-HMF was 41.2% and the conversion rate of glucose remained at 85.4% after five cycles.