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The Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Glucose in Biphasic System by Phosphotungstic Acidified Titanium–Zirconium Dioxide

He, Rong, Huang, Xiaolin, Zhao, Peng, Han, Bin, Wu, Tinghua, Wu, Ying
Waste and biomass valorization 2018 v.9 no.4 pp. 657-668
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ammonia, catalysts, catalytic activity, desorption, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural, magnetism, mixing, phosphotungstic acid, recycling, temperature, thermal stability, titanium dioxide, transmission electron microscopes, transmission electron microscopy, zirconium oxide
Phosphotungstic acidified titanium–zirconium dioxide catalysts with different loading of phosphotungstic acid (HPA) were synthesized by a precipitation-impregnation method. The phosphotungstic acidified solid acids were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH₃-TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. And the catalytic performance of HPA/TiO₂–ZrO₂ was explored for glucose degradation to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in biphasic system, such as the loading of HPA, the molar ratio of TiO₂ to ZrO₂, reaction time, temperature, amount of catalyst, the volume ratio of V NₐCₗ₍ₐq₎/V THF and magnetic stirring speed. It was found that activity of the catalyst was related to the amount and density of acid site. The optimized yield of 51.3% for 5-HMF and the optimum conversion rate of 95.4% for glucose were achieved by 5% HPA/TiO₂–ZrO₂. Meanwhile, recycling performance of the catalyst was investigated. And the catalyst had good thermal stability, the yield of 5-HMF was 41.2% and the conversion rate of glucose remained at 85.4% after five cycles.