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Advanced biotechnology in biorefinery: a new insight into municipal waste management to the production of high-value products

Haddadi, M.H., Aiyelabegan, H.T., Negahdari, B.
International journal of environmental science and technology 2018 v.15 no.3 pp. 675-686
bacteria, biofuels, biomass, bioreactors, biorefining, byproducts, carbon dioxide, feedstocks, fungi, genetic engineering, global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, high-value products, metabolic engineering, microalgae, petroleum, pollution, waste management, wastes
The development of new biotechnology methods can solve public concerns especially on global warming and environmental pollution. This can be achieved by using integrated biorefinery bioprocesses to introduce biomass as a very best renewable source, to replace petroleum and to develop new bio-based products in an industrial scale. Genetic engineering of organisms and improving bioreactors is currently substantial approaches to increase biorefinery yields. The use of various feedstocks in new-generation biorefinery requires a flexible route with the lowest limitations. Biological approaches have attracted substantial interest in the conversion of biomass into biomaterial and biofuel. As a result of increase in valuable products due to the biomass conversion, the interest on biorefinery is higher than that of petroleum. Biotechnology is an integral aspect of new biology. Through genetic and metabolic engineering, bio-based products can be generated from living cells such as microalgae, bacteria and fungi. Greenhouse gas emission and CO₂ can be released from the biomass feedstocks by chemical and thermochemical processes, while it can be reduced by increasing the use of biotechnological approach in biorefinery system. In order to manage our waste and at the same time produce valuable products, biotechnology approaches are very favorable and applicable than conventional methods. Collectively, the integration of biological routes with conventional routes can decrease operation cost by using waste materials, preventing environmental pollution, and, therefore, producing valuable by-products.