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(Im)mobilization of soil heavy metals using CaO, FA, sulfur, and Na2S: a 1-year incubation study

Mahar, A., Wang, P., Ali, A., Lahori, A.H., Awasthi, M.K., Wang, Z., Guo, Z., Wang, Q., Feng, S., Li, R., Zhang, Z.
International journal of environmental science and technology 2018 v.15 no.3 pp. 607-620
acid soils, alkaline soils, cadmium, calcium oxide, copper, electrical conductivity, fly ash, heavy metals, lead, polluted soils, sodium sulfide, soil amendments, soil ecosystems, soil pH, soil remediation, sulfur
The immobilization of heavy metals (HMs)-contaminated soils using amendments is a cost-effective remediation technique. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and aging factor of CaO, fly ash (FA), sulfur, and Na₂S on the immobilization of Cd, Cu, and Pb in three different contaminated soils under 1-year incubation. The study sites (S) and amendments treatments (T) are termed as S1, S2, and S3 and T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. The TCLP-extractable HMs were analyzed in treated soils after 2, 6, and 12 months. The higher concentrations of CaO, FA, and Na₂S (T3 and T4) efficiently immobilized the Cd. However, a moderate Cd decrease was noted in sulfur-treated samples with no significant difference in ratios as compared to control in used soils. Likewise, CaO decreased moderately Cu content in used soils with gradual increase in Cu mobility. Similarly, FA, sulfur, and Na₂S showed effective immobilization of Cu content with no difference in treatment ratios as compared to control. In addition, CaO, sulfur, and Na₂S decreased the significant content of Pb as compared to control. However, FA treatments showed moderate reduction in Pb content with no difference in ratios. The higher concentrations of alkaline amendments should be avoided in the farmland soils as they increase the soil pH and EC of soil ecosystem. The higher ratios of alkaline amendments would be suitable to remediate the abandoned lands/brownfields. The sulfur amendment would be suitable for immobilization of metals in alkaline soils rather than in acidic soils.